Fragile Progress: Source notes

A CPJ special report on the struggle for press freedom in the EU

1 Pol Morillas, editor, “Illiberal Democracies in the EU: the Visegrad Group and the Risk of Disintegration,” January 2017

2 CPJ, “Balancing Act,” 2015

3 Some sources asked not to be named in this report in order to speak frankly or because they were not authorized to speak to the media.

4 European Commission, “Joint Statement on the International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists,” November 1, 2021 

5 Platform for the protection of journalism and the safety of journalists / Council of Europe, “Wanted! Real action for media freedom in Europe: Annual Report by the partner organisations to the Council of Europe Platform to Promote the Protection of Journalism and Safety of Journalists,” April 2021 

6 The Rule of Law Report monitors EU member states’ performance, both positive and negative, in four key areas for the rule of law: the justice system, the anti-corruption framework, media pluralism, and other institutional issues related to checks and balances. The report is issued annually by the European Commission with input from civil society.

7 These trends were confirmed by the number of alerts submitted to the Council of Europe platform to promote the protection of journalism and the safety of journalists (of which CPJ has been a member since 2015). See Council of Europe, “Defending Press Freedom in Times of Tension and Conflict,” April 2022 

8 European Commission, “European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations (DG NEAR)” 

9 European Parliament, “Fact Sheets on the European Union: Human rights” 

10 Article 2 of the Treaty on European Union: Title I Common Provisions provides that “The Union is founded on the values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities. These values are common to the Member States in a society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between women and men prevail.” See EU, “Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union – Title I Common Provisions – Article 2,” October 26, 2012 

11 European Commission, “EU Charter of Fundamental Rights” 

12 EU, “FAQ EU competences and Commission powers” 

13 The Council of Europe has 46 members. Russia was excluded on March 16, 2022, due to its invasion of Ukraine.

14 “Council Directive 89/552/EEC of 3 October 1989 on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action in Member States concerning the pursuit of television broadcasting activities.”,and%20the%20protection%20of%20minors

15 “Directive (EU) 2018/1808 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 November 2018 amending Directive 2010/13/EU on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action in Member States concerning the provision of audiovisual media services (Audiovisual Media Services Directive) in view of changing market realities”

16 This process included the creation of the Council of Europe in 1949 but its key date, celebrated today as Europe Day, is May 9, 1950, with the Schuman Declaration. Named after then French foreign minister Robert Schuman—considered a founding father of the EU—it called for deeper cooperation in Europe and led to the establishment in 1951 of the European Coal and Steel Community, with Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. 

17 Stefan Lehne, “The EU and the Creative and Destructive Impact of Crises,” October 18, 2022,for%20a%20number%20of%20years.

18 EU, “History of the EU”

19 CPJ, “Gunmen attack Paris offices of Charlie Hebdo, kill at least 12,” January 7, 2015 

20 Molly Killeen, “News media seek to reconnect with audiences amid falling trust,” November 10, 2022

21 “Illiberal Democracies in the EU: the Visegrad Group and the Risk of Disintegration”

22 Ginger Hervey, “Hungary, ‘canary in the coal mine’ of EU press,” September 29, 2015  

23 Kati Marton is a member of CPJ’s board of directors.

24 Multiple reports have documented Russian strategies of influence, including Beatrix Futàk-Campbell, “Political Synergy: How the European Far-Right and Russia Have Joined Forces Against Brussels,” 2020 

25 Eszter Zalan, “EU to better protect journalists, Jourova promises,” October 8, 2019 

26 European Parliament, “LIBE Democracy, Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights Monitoring Group (DRFMG)” 

27 CPJ, “CPJ leads call for new European Commission President to prioritize press freedom,” July 21, 2019 

28 Reuters Staff, “EU executive will get tough with countries breaking rule of law: Juncker,” September 12, 2018 

29 These rules are: the “stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities; a functioning market economy and the ability to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the EU; the ability to take on the obligations of membership, including the capacity to effectively implement the rules, standards and policies that make up the body of EU law (the ‘ acquis ’), and adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union.” 

30 CPJ, “Balancing Act: The rule of law mechanism” 

31 European Commission, “Infringement procedure” 

32 European Commission, “Rule of law framework”

33 European Parliament, “Breaches of EU values: how the EU can act (infographic),” September 28, 2022

34 Kim Lane Scheppele, “EU can still block Hungary’s veto on Polish sanctions,” January 11, 2016 

35 Lydia Gall, “Hungary is Taking European Values for a Ride,” June 23, 2017 

36 “Fidesz has been suspended from membership of the EPP party alliance since March 2019 but its MEPs had remained part of the EPP group” until they officially left in 2021. See Maïa de La Baume, “Orbán’s Fidesz quits EPP group in European Parliament,” March 3, 2021 

37 The New Yorker, “Why Do Conservatives Love Hungary’s Viktor Orbán?” June 27 2022  

38 CPJ internal interview

39 National Endowment for Democracy, Democracy Digest, “‘Orbanization’? How to capture a democracy,” May 20, 2022 

40 Perle Petit, “What should the EU do about Hungary’s illiberal turn?” November 4, 2022 

41 CPJ, “Hungary’s media control unprecedented in EU, joint mission finds,” December 3, 2019 

42 Evgeniia Iakhnis, Brian Rathbun, Jason Reifler, and Thomas J. Scotto, “Populist referendum: Was ‘Brexit’ an expression of nativist and anti-elitist sentiment?” May 23, 2018 

43 This distance applies also to the media. According to a 2022 Eurobarometer survey, 49% of Europeans trust public broadcasting, 39% “written press,” and 27% private broadcast stations. 

44 “Wanted! Real action for media freedom in Europe” 

45 Naja Bentzen, “The impact of coronavirus on media freedom,” May 8, 2020 

46 This only applies to state of emergency regulation so it was in effect when the state of emergency was declared due to the pandemic. See CPJ, “Proposed Hungarian laws could imprison journalists covering coronavirus response,” March 24, 2020 

47 Platform for the protection of journalism and the safety of journalists / Council of Europe, “COVID-19 Addendum: Press Freedom Suffers in Council of Europe Member States Under COVID-19: COVID-19 Addendum to the annual report by the partner organizations to the Council of Europe Platform to Promote the Protection of Journalism and Safety of Journalists,” June 2020.

48 European Council, “Rule of law conditionality mechanism: Council decides to suspend €6.3 billion given only partial remedial action by Hungary,” December 12, 2022 

49 European Commission, “Rule of law conditionality regulation”

50 European Commission, “The Commissioners”

51 Breton, as part of his portfolio, heads the Directorate-General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology which “develops and implements policies to make Europe fit for the digital age.” Audiovisual and media services policy falls within this Directorate-General.

52 Free Press Unlimited, “Enabling environment for the media: Media Advocacy Resource Guide” This concept covers media viability, media law, etc. that determine independent media’s capacity to function properly.  

53 Ursula von der Leyen, president of the European Commission, “Mission letter” to Věra Jourová, vice-president for values and transparency, December 1, 2019

54 European Commission, “European Media and Audiovisual Action Plan” 

55 European Commission, “Digital Decade: Commission launches Action Plan to support recovery and transformation of the media and audiovisual sectors,” December 3, 2020

56 Jourová first visited Malta in 2018 and met the family of Daphne Caruana Galizia. At the time, from 2014 to 2019, Jourová was European Commissioner for Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality.  

57 Massimo Costa, “‘I will keep my promises to Caruana Galizia family’ – Vera Jourova,” October 7, 2019

58 Attila Mong, “Hungarian journalists fear Orbán will use election win to tighten grip on independent media,” April 5, 2022

59 European Commission, “Media sector calls — EU support to Media Freedom and Pluralism”

60 Directorate-General for Justice and Consumers, “2020 Rule of law report – Communication and country chapters,” September 30, 2020

61 The Rule of Law Report covers four areas: justice, corruption, media, “and other institutional issues related to checks and balances.”

62 European Commission, “Recommendation on the protection, safety and empowerment of journalists,” September 16, 2021

63 European Union, “Types of legislation” 

64 The prevalence of SLAPPs led to the establishment of CASE, of which CPJ is a member. The anti-SLAPP directive would not only protect journalists and newspapers, but also activists, campaigning organizations, whistleblowers, and others. 

65 EPRS, media freedom conference in Paris, December 3, 2022 

66 “The proposed Directive entered the ordinary legislative procedure in the European Parliament and the Council.”

67 CASE, “Shutting Out Criticism: How SLAPPs Threaten European Democracy,” March 2022

68 Platform to Promote the Protection of Journalism and Safety of Journalists launched its report “Defending Press Freedom in Times of Tension and Conflict.”

69 ECPMF, “CASE welcomes the EC’s Anti-SLAPP Initiative as a landmark step in the right direction”

70 Daphne Caruana Galizia Foundation, “Defence against frivolous and vexatious libel suits” 

71 European Commission, “Digital Services Act: EU’s landmark rules for online platforms enter into force,” November 16, 2022 
European Parliament, “Digital Markets Act: Application timeline,” November 30, 2022

72 Eliska Pirkova, “The Digital Services Act: your guide to the EU’s new content moderation rules,” March 17, 2023

73 European Commission, “The Digital Services Act package”,level%20playing%20field%20for%20businesses

74 Tom Gibson, “How will the EU’s Digital Services Act impact journalism?” July 29, 2020

75 Electronic Frontier Foundation, “EFF Statement on EU Parliament’s Adoption of Digital Services Act and Digital Markets Act,” July 5, 2022

76 ENPA, “The Digital Services Act must safeguard freedom of expression online,” January 18, 2022 

77 European Magazine Media Association (EMMA); European Newspaper Publishers’ Association (ENPA).

78 Doris Buijs, “The Digital Services Act and the implications for news media and journalistic content (Part 1),” September 29, 2022 

79 Victoria de Posson, “A media exemption in the DSA is a recipe for unintended consequences,” December 7, 2021 

80 Matt Murphy, “Janez Jansa: Slovenia votes out pro-Trump populist,” April 25, 2022

81 “Wanted! Real action for media freedom in Europe” 

82 EU, “Division of competences within the European Union,” February 24, 2022

83 Attila Mong, “Hungary’s Klubrádió owner András Arató on how the station is responding to the loss of its broadcast license,” November 9, 2021 

84 “Hungary’s Klubrádió owner András Arató on how the station is responding to the loss of its broadcast license” 

85 Véronique Lamquin, “Didier Reynders: ‘On observe une tendance inquiétante en termes de sécurité des journalistes,’” July 13, 2022 

86 European Commission, “European Media Freedom Act: Commission proposes rules to protect media pluralism and independence in the EU,” September 16, 2022

87 Article 2 of the European Media Freedom Act defines a public service media provider as a provider “entrusted with a public service mission under national law or receives national public funding for the fulfillment of such a mission.”  

88 “European Media Freedom Act: Commission proposes rules to protect media pluralism and independence in the EU”

89 Damian Tambini, The democratic fightback has begun: The European Commission’s new European Media Freedom Act,” September 16, 2022 

90 Luci Rohrbacherová and Eva Simon, “Transparency of Media Ownership within the EMFA Proposal” 

91 “European Media Freedom Act: Commission proposes rules to protect media pluralism and independence in the EU” “The Commission proposes to set up a new independent European Board for Media Services comprised of national media authorities. The Board will promote the effective and consistent application of the EU media law framework, in particular by assisting the Commission in preparing guidelines on media regulatory matters. It will also be able to issue opinions on national measures and decisions affecting media markets and media market concentrations.”

92 European Journalism Symposium in Brussels, November 25, 2022

93 Dirk Voorhoof, “European Media Freedom Act and the protection of journalistic sources: still some way to go – Dirk Voorhoof,” November 18, 2022.

94 EU, “EU Media Freedom Act: EDPS calls for better protection for all journalists and a ban on highly advanced military-grade spyware,” November 14, 2022 

95 Article 17 of the European Media Freedom Act 

96 See “Platforms’ privileged treatment’ of media content (Article 17)” in Eliska Pirkova, “FAQ: how the EU plans to protect media freedom,” March 17, 2023 

97 EPRS, media freedom panel discussion, December 3, 2022

98 Molly Killeen, “EU Council lawyers confirm legal basis of Media Freedom Act,” March 30, 2023 

99 EDRi, “European Commission must uphold privacy, security and free expression by withdrawing new law, say civil society,” June 8, 2022 

100 Tom Gibson, “CPJ joins call to reject draft EU regulation for online terrorist content,” March 25, 2021

101 Tom Gibson, “CPJ reminds EU that ‘e-evidence’ rules should protect journalists,” September 14, 2020 

102 CPJ, “Hungarian court gags investigative report, citing EU data protection law,” October 21, 2020

103 Zsuzsa Detrekői, “How to Gag Journalism in Hungary: Use GDPR,” October 7, 2020 

104 CPJ, “Hungarian court gags investigative report, citing EU data protection law,” October 21, 2020 

105 Melinda Rucz, “The GDPR enters the SLAPP scene: GDPR proceedings as emerging forms of strategic litigation against public participation,” February 22, 2022   

106 Attila Mong, “In Romania, EU data protection law used to try to muzzle Rise Project, January 16, 2019 

107 Data Protection Law Scholars Network, “The right to lodge a data protection complaint: OK, but then what? An empirical study of current practices under the GDPR,” June 2022

108 Tom Gibson, “CPJ joins call for human rights protections in EU Digital Services Act,” March 2, 2022  

109 EDRi, “Position paper: A safe internet for all – Upholding private and secure communications,” October 19, 2022 

110 EDPB and EDPS, “Joint Opinion 4/2022 on the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down rules to prevent and combat child sexual abuse,” July 28, 2022

111 Javier Zarzalejos, “New legislation to fight child sexual abuse online,” March 20, 2023 

112 Amnesty International,Forensic Methodology Report: How to catch NSO Group’s Pegasus,” July 18, 2021 

113 Forbidden Stories, “About the Pegasus Project”   

114 EU, “Regulation (EU) 2021/821 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2021 setting up a Union regime for the control of exports, brokering, technical assistance, transit and transfer of dual-use items (recast)” 

115 Human Rights Watch, “EU: Robustly Implement New Export Rules for Surveillance Tech,” September 8, 2021 

116 “European Parliament Draft Recommendation to the Council and the Commission … following the investigation of alleged contraventions and maladministration in the application of Union law in relation to the use of Pegasus and equivalent surveillance spyware” 

117 Mark Mazzetti, Ronen Bergman, and Matina Stevis-Gridneff, “How the Global Spyware Industry Spiraled Out of Control,” January 28, 2023 

118 Section 4 of the European democracy action plan defines disinformation as “false or misleading content that is spread with an intention to deceive or secure economic or political gain and which may cause public harm” 

119 Carme Colomina, Héctor Sánchez Margalef, and Richard Youngs, “The impact of disinformation on democratic processes and human rights in the world,” April 22, 2021

120 “Special Committee on Foreign Interference in all Democratic Processes in the European Union, including Disinformation”  

121 European Commission, “The 2022 Code of Practice on Disinformation” 

122 “The 2022 Code of Practice on Disinformation” 

123 UNESCO, press freedom conference, December 2, 2022

124 Dick Voorhoof, “EU silences Russian state media: a step in the wrong direction – Dirk Voorhoof,” May 8, 2022   

125 Toby Sterling, “Dutch journalists, rights group file lawsuit challenging EU ban on RT, Sputnik,” May 25, 2022  

126 Jorge Liboreiro, “European General Court upholds EU ban on Russia Today,” August 1, 2022 

127 On April 19, 2022, CPJ, Access Now, and EDRi wrote to the European Commission seeking information about the implementation of the RT-Sputnik ban. A response was received on June 28, 2022. An information request also was sent on January 19, 2023, to ask the Commission to provide further information not otherwise provided in the June response. 

128 Tarja Laaninen, “Ukraine: Media freedom and disinformation,” June 24, 2022 

129 European Commission, “EU assistance to Ukraine” 

130 Media Freedom Rapid Response,” “Residencies” 

131 Aleks Szczerbiak, “How will the Russia-Ukraine war affect Poland’s rule of law dispute with the EU?” July 11, 2022 

132 Sylvie Kauffmann, “La vision de ‘l’Europe à un tournant historique’ défendue par la Pologne est à l’opposé de celle de ses partenaires français et allemand,” April 5, 2023 

133 European Commission, “Trade secrets” 

134 Franceinfo, “Scandale dans les Ehpad Orpea : ‘Le rapport d’enquête ne sera pas public et c’est inquiétant,’ juge le cadre infirmier à l’origine de l’enquête,” March 25, 2022

135 Yann Philippin, Antton Rouget, and Marine Turchi, “‘Secret des affaires’: l’Etat refuse de communiquer ses commandes de masques,” June 15, 2020 

136 L’Express, “‘Implant Files’: le secret des affaires empêche l’enquête,” November 28, 2018 

137 Spiil, “ vs. Altice : more than ever the Spiil reminds that the right to information must take over business secrecy,” October 10, 2022

138 Brice Laemle, “La justice autorise ‘’ à publier de nouveaux articles à propos d’Altice à partir de données piratées,” January 20, 2023  ​​

139 EPP Group, “MEP Casa nominated as Co-Chair of the EP’s Media Working Group,” September 8, 2020 

140 Daphne Caruana Galizia Prize for Journalism ​​ 

141 Council of the European Union, “Live from Brussels: A study of the Brussels press corps,” 2021 

142 “Reporting on European affairs: a thankless calling?” round table, November 24, 2022

143 Jakob Hanke Vela, “Brussels Playbook: Burn after reading — Séjourné slams ‘Trumpist’ migration debate — Subsidy row latest,” February 7, 2023   

144 “Live from Brussels: A study of the Brussels press corps,” 2021  

145 Italian MEP Andrea Cozzolino and Belgian MEP Marc Tarabella were later connected with the scandal and are facing investigations:

146 Sydney P. Freedberg, Nicole Sadek, Brenda Medina, Agustin Armendariz, and Karrie Kehoe, “How Uber won access to world leaders, deceived investigators and exploited violence against its drivers in battle for global dominance,” July 10, 2022

147 EU, “Regulation (EC) No 1049/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2001 regarding public access to European Parliament, Council and Commission documents,” May 30, 2001 

148 For example, see Article 4 (regarding “Exceptions”) of “Regulation (EC) No 1049/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2001 regarding public access to European Parliament, Council and Commission documents” 

149 Hans-Martin Tillack and Peter Teffer, “Brussels conceals records on recovery billions, despite transparency pledge,” February 9, 2022 

150 Jacopo Barigazzi, “Brussels Playbook: Qatargate — China travel deal — Guerrillas in Russia,” January 5, 2023 

151 “Brussels Playbook: Qatargate — China travel deal — Guerrillas in Russia” 

152 Access Info, “European Commission President’s text messages are documents and can be requested says Ombudsman,” January 28, 2022  Alexander Fanta, “Von der Leyen’s texts are not a private matter,” June 30, 2022   

153 Alexander Fanta, “Von der Leyen’s texts are not a private matter,” June 30, 2022   

154 Samuel Stolton, “New York Times sues EU over von der Leyen’s Pfizer texts,” February 13, 2023 

155 EU, “Directive (EU) 2019/1937 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2019 on the protection of persons who report breaches of Union law” 

156 Informer n’est pas un délit, “Loi ‘lanceurs d’alerte’ : 29 organisations lancent un appel à la société civile,” June 2, 2021

157 Nicholas Aiossa, “Make 2020 the year of the EU staff whistleblower,” January 22, 2020 

158 Whistleblowing International Network, “Whistleblowing protection laws must cover breaches of national law” 

159 CJEU, “​​The Court of Justice confirms that EU law precludes the general and indiscriminate retention of traffic and location data, except in the case of a serious threat to national security,” September 20, 2022 

160 Eliska Pirkova and Estelle Massé, “EU Court decides on two major ‘right to be forgotten’ cases: there are no winners here,” January 13, 2023

161 Michael J. Oghia, “Information Not Found: The ‘Right to Be Forgotten’ as an Emerging Threat to Media Freedom in the Digital Age,” January 9, 2018 

162 Nikolaj Nielsen, “EU court delivers transparency blow on MEP expenses,” September 25, 2018

163 Solvej Krause, “Who should have access to beneficial ownership registries? ECJ revokes public access in the EU but confirms access for journalists and civil society,” January 26, 2023,EU%20Charter%20of%20Fundamental%20Rights 

164 Alexandra Gillies, “FAQ: The EU Ruling on Ownership Transparency and What It Means for Journallists,” January 5, 2023 

165 Abdelhak El Idrissi, Anne Michel, and Jérémie Baruch, “‘In one day, the court destroyed years of work’: Shock at European ruling on financial transparency,” December 7, 2022  

166 Scilla Alecci and Sean McGoey, “Pandora Papers Reporting from Across Europe,” December 21, 2021 

167 Raquel Jorge Ricart, “The geopolitical implications of the EU’s Media Freedom Act,” December 16, 2022 

168 Council of the European Union, “A Strategic Compass for a stronger EU security and defence in the next decade,” March 21, 2022 

169 Resource Centre on Media Freedom in Europe, “UN-EU High-level Policy Dialogue on safety of journalists and media freedom,” February 4, 2022  

170 Anu Bradford, “The Brussels Effect: How the European Union Rules the World,” 2020

171 European Parliament, “Frances Haugen to MEPs: EU digital rules can be a game changer for the world,” November 8, 2021  

172 In response to CPJ’s question at the European Journalism Symposium in Brussels, November 25, 2022. 

173 In an April 2022, Foreign Policy piece, Jacob Mchangama, who directs Copenhagen-based think-tank Justitia and Justitia’s The Future of Free Speech Project, expressed his concerns about the Digital Services Act’s “Brussels Effect,” writing “the DSA does not strike the right balance between countering genuine online harms and safeguarding free speech. It will most likely result in a shrinking space for online expression, as social media companies are incentivized to delete massive amounts of perfectly legal content.” 

174 EU Human Rights Guidelines on Freedom of Expression Online and Offline, 2014

175 Media4Democracy 

176 Media4Democracy, “Protecting the Safety of Journalists Protecting Freedom of Expression: A Handbook for EU Delegations,” 2020  

177 EU, “EU Action Plan on Human Rights and Democracy 2020 – 2024” 

178 European Commission, “Joint Statement on the International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists,” November 1, 2021

179 European Neighbourhood Policy: What is it? e.

180 Attila Mong, “In Greece, reporters’ killings unsolved, critical journalists complain of growing threats,” October 27, 2022 

181 CPJ, “Malta: Court sentences hitmen to 40 years each for role in assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia,” October 14, 2022 

182 CPJ, “Slovak Supreme Court cancels acquittal of primary suspects in journalist Ján Kuciak’s murder,” June 15, 2021 

183 CPJ, “CPJ welcomes final sentencing over Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack,” October 24, 2022 

184 Ionel Zamfir, “Transitional justice: Central to fighting impunity,” June 15, 2022 

185 “EU assistance to Ukraine” 

186 European Parliament, “Draft Report on the protection of journalists around the world and the European Union’s policy on the matter,” January 10, 2023 

187 Tamsin Mitchell, “Safety of journalists in non-EU countries: state and non-state protection mechanisms and the role of the EU,” June 2022 

188 In March 2022, a number of human rights organizations insisted, for instance, on the EU to publicly call “at the beginning of the EU-China summit and at all high-level interactions for the release of arbitrarily detained human rights defenders and activists, … such as citizen journalist Zhang Zhan.” 

189 Mario Damen, “Values on the retreat? The role of values in the EU’s external policies,” March 2022

190 Marco Appel, “Parlamento Europeo, el nuevo enemigo de AMLO,” April 5, 2022 

191 European Parliament, “EP Press Release of 10 March 2022 on situation of journalists and human rights defenders in Mexico,” March 10, 2022   

192 Henry Foy, Sam Fleming, and Javier Espinoza, “European parliament to ban all unofficial ‘friendship groups,’” December 15, 2022 

193 Andreas Kouwenhoven and Clara van de Wiel,Op de loonlijst in Brussel én de Emiraten: hoe het Europarlement openstaat voor autocratische regimes,” February 8, 2023 
Sarah Wheaton, “Brussels Playbook: EUCO deals on fences, funds — Zelenskyy’s success rate — Sikorski’s UAE gig,” February 10, 2023 

194 Renata Neder, “‘Covering a lawless land’: Brazilian journalists on reporting in the Amazon after Dom Phillips’ and Bruno Pereira’s killings,” July 26, 2022 

195 Signed in Cotonou (Togo) in 2000, it is a partnership agreement between the EU and the so-called ACP (Africa, Caribbean and Pacific states).

196 Heidi Hautala, “Review of the Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP) Regulation,” March 2023