US protests safety advisory
A police officer sprays protesters during a march against the death in Minneapolis police custody of George Floyd, in New York City, on May 30, 2020. (Reuters/Jeenah Moon)

CPJ Safety Advisory: Covering U.S. protests over police violence

Updated June 2, 2020

There have been more than 125 incidents of violence and harassment, as well as arrests, targeting journalists covering recent protests across the U.S. sparked by the death on May 25, 2020—in police custody—of George Floyd, an unarmed black man in Minneapolis, Minnesota. These incidents have been documented by CPJ and the U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, a nonpartisan website of which CPJ is a founding partner, as well as by news reports and video and photos on live television and posted on social media. The police appear to be responsible for the majority of incidents, although crowds and protesters have also targeted media workers.

Journalists who need legal assistance can call the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press hotline at 1-800-336-4243 or contact the Reporters Committee via email at hotline@rcfp.org. For more legal information, journalists can consult the Reporters Committee’s guide to covering protests and tip sheet.

Journalists covering the protests need to consider the following risks:

  • Police targeting of journalists with rubber bullets and projectiles

On the night of May 29, photojournalist Linda Tirado was hit in the left eye by a rubber bullet and, according to her posts on Twitter, has been permanently blinded. A number of other media crews have been hit by rubber bullets, including Swedish TV, Reuters, and CBS News. In many of these cases, the police appear to be targeting the journalists.

  • Liberal use of pepper spray by police

Police have used pepper spray against reporters on a number of occasions in the last 48 hours. A Vice News correspondent was sprayed while on the ground, despite having clearly identified himself as a member of the press.

  • Arrest and detention

Journalists have been arrested despite identifying themselves as members of the media. On the morning of May 29, a CNN crew was handcuffed and detained while reporting live. The following night, Huffington Post journalist Christopher Mathias was arrested by police while covering protests in Brooklyn, New York. These journalists were later released.

  • Threats from the crowd

The crowds have turned on journalists at times. A Fox News team covering protests in Lafayette Park in Washington, D.C., were harassed and then chased by members of the crowd. In Phoenix, Arizona, CBS 5 and 3 TV reporter Briana Whitney was grabbed while live on air by a man shouting obscenities.

Journalists covering the protests should consider and be aware of the following:

Physical Safety

  • Media workers should not be expected to work alone
  • Taking into account the increased levels of violence and tactics used by both police and protesters, ballistic glasses, helmets, and stab vests should be worn. If there is a threat of live ammunition being used, then body armor should be considered
  • Also consider the risk of COVID-19. Demonstrators and law enforcers are often ignoring social distancing guidance. Ensure that you have 70% alcohol-based sanitizer, disposable gloves, and an N95 facemask (or FFP2 / FFP3) when not using a respirator
  • If reporting from a protest location, maintain situational awareness at all times and be aware of the threat from potential stampedes. Due to the prevalence of mob violence, consider reporting from a higher vantage point such as a building rooftop or balcony. Always stay in close proximity to hard cover, keep to the periphery of the crowd, and have an emergency exit route planned
  • Vehicular ramming of protesters has already occurred and evokes memories of the 2017 white supremacist rally in Charlottesville, Virginia. During that rally, a protester was killed after being hit by a car that was intentionally driven into a crowd. Journalists should remain conscious of the threat of potential vehicle ramming by anti-protest groups. Remain on the sides of roads and take stock of locations to shelter in or escape toon a regular basis
  • Consider using a “backwatcher” to help keep you aware of what is going on around you
  • Always have a check-in procedure with your base, particularly if reporting from protest locations
  • Keep to the outside of the crowd. Avoid being sucked into the middle of the crowd where it is hard to escape, and avoid getting trapped between the police and the protesters. Try to keep your back against a wall or something similar to protect your back/rear. Identify possible escape/evacuation routes. If in a team, identify agreed emergency rendezvous points to meet with others should you become separated
  • Continuously observe and read the mood of the authorities in relation to the crowd dynamic. Police can become more aggressive if the crowd is agitated or vice versa. Visual cues such as the appearance of police dressed in riot gear, shield walls, or throwing of projectiles are potential indicators that aggression can be expected. Pull back to a safe location, or plan a quick extraction when such ‘red flags’ like these are evident
  • Keep your media credentials with you, and easily accessible at all times in case the police ask to see them
  • Large crowds create potential risks of sexual assault. Journalists should always work with colleagues and have the means to raise the alarm. Working after dark is considerably more risky and should be avoided. For more information please see CPJ’s advice for journalists reporting alone
  • Plan all journeys in and around cities in advance, and have a contingency plan in place. Movement can be affected at very short notice due to protesters blocking roads, as well as the closure of metro stations

Digital Safety

  • Be aware of the information stored on your devices. Think about the type of information police will have access to should they detain you and gain access to your phone or laptop
  • If possible, leave your main phone behind and instead carry a phone that has minimal information on it. If you cannot leave your phone behind then remove as much personal information as possible from the device, including logging out of and deleting apps from the phone. For more information, see CPJ’s advice on device security
  • Deactivate touch or face ID for your phone and use a pin number instead
  • Turn off location services for your apps as this information is stored by companies and could be subpoenaed by the authorities at a later date

CPJ’s online Safety Kit provides journalists and newsrooms with basic safety information on physical, digital, and psychological safety resources and tools, including covering civil unrest. If you need assistance, journalists should contact CPJ via emergencies@cpj.org