Europe & Central Asia / 2005

Attacks on the Press in 2004: Introduction

March 14, 2005 11:58 AM ET

by Ann CooperWith its myriad dangers and devastating death toll, Iraq remained the worst place to practice journalism throughout 2004, and one of the most dangerous media assignments in recent history. Twenty-three journalists and 16 media support workers were killed on the job in Iraq during the year. An insurgent...

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Attacks on the Press 2004: Africa Analysis

March 14, 2005 11:57 AM ET

Overviewby Julia Crawford With the rule of law weak in many African countries, journalists regularly battle threats and harassment, not only from governments but also from rogue elements, such as militias. Repressive legislation is used in many countries to silence journalists who write about sensitive topics such as corruption, mismanagement,...

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Attacks on the Press 2004: Europe and Central Asia Analysis

March 14, 2005 11:54 AM ET

Overview by Alex Lupis Authoriatarian rulers strengthened their hold on power in many former Soviet republics in 2004. Their secretive, centralized governments aggressively suppressed all forms of independent activity, from journalism and human rights monitoring to religious activism and political opposition....

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Attacks on the Press 2004: Middle East and North Africa Analysis

March 14, 2005 11:53 AM ET

OverviewBy Joel Campagna The conflict in Iraq led to a harrowing number of press attacks in 2004, with local journalists and media support workers primarily in the line of fire. Twenty-three journalists and 16 support staff—drivers, interpreters, fixers, and guards—were killed while on the job in Iraq in 2004. In...

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Attacks on the Press 2004: Albania

March 14, 2005 11:46 AM ET

AlbaniaPrime Minister Fatos Nano and his socialist government continued to pressure independent and opposition media in 2004, using criminal and civil defamation complaints as a stick and politically motivated state advertising as a carrot....

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Attacks on the Press 2004: Armenia

March 14, 2005 11:45 AM ET

ArmeniaThe Armenian government failed to protect journalists during violent demonstrations in April against President Robert Kocharian. In some cases, authorities were directly involved in attacks on the press....

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Attacks on the Press 2004: Azerbaijan

March 14, 2005 11:45 AM ET

AzerbaijanThe massive protests that erupted in October 2003 over the election of President Ilham Aliyev continued to have repercussions in 2004. Following the lead of his father, Heydar, who died in December 2003, Aliyev intensified pressure on independent and opposition media and used the country's harsh criminal and civil codes...

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Attacks on the Press 2004: Belarus

March 14, 2005 11:43 AM ET

Belarus President Aleksandr Lukashenko strangled the country's independent and opposition media in the months before deeply flawed October elections that returned his supporters to Parliament. The obedient state media flooded the capital, Minsk, and the countryside with pro-Lukashenko propaganda, vilifying opposition leaders and urging voters to support the president or...

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Attacks on the Press 2004: Bosnia-Herzegovina

March 14, 2005 11:42 AM ET

Bosnia-HerzegovinaJournalists in both of the autonomous regions that comprise Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Serb-dominated Republika Srpska and the Croat-Muslim Federation, continue to work in a complex environment marred by widespread corruption and organized crime, weak government institutions, economic underdevelopment, and poor access to government information. Journalists commonly practice self-censorship to avoid pressure...

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Attacks on the Press 2004: Central Africa Republic

March 14, 2005 11:39 AM ET

Central Africa Republic President François Bozizé's government imprisoned two prominent publication directors and harassed many other journalists as initial optimism that he would enact reforms gave way to the reality of civil strife and a bleak economy. Bozizé took power in this mineral-rich but chronically unstable nation after toppling former...

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