On January 19, 2007, Hrant Dink, 52, managing editor of the bilingual Turkish-Armenian weekly Agos, was shot outside his newspaper’s offices in Istanbul. Dink had received numerous death threats from nationalist Turks who viewed his iconoclastic journalism, particularly on the mass killings of Armenians in the early 20th century, as an act of treachery. In a January 10 article in Agos, Dink said he had passed along a particularly threatening letter to Istanbul’s Şişli district prosecutor, but no action was taken.
Then-Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan condemned Dink’s murder as an attack against Turkey’s unity and promised to catch those responsible, according to international news reports. A day later, police arrested the triggerman, 17-year-old Ogün Samast, who confessed to the crime. Erhan Tuncel and Yasin Hayal, described as ultranationalist Turks opposed to Dink’s political views, were accused of conspiring with Samast to carry out the murder. In all, 19 people went on trial beginning in July.
Dink, a Turkish citizen of Armenian descent, had been prosecuted several times–for writing about the mass killings of Armenians by Turks at the beginning of the 20th century, for criticizing lines in the Turkish national anthem that he considered discriminatory, and for commenting publicly on the court cases against him. His office was also the target of protests.
In July 2006, Turkey’s High Court of Appeals upheld a six-month suspended prison sentence against Dink for violating Article 301 of the penal code in a case sparked by complaints from nationalist activists. His prosecution stemmed from a series of articles in early 2004 dealing with the collective memory of the Armenian massacres of 1915-17 under the Ottoman Empire. Armenians call the killings the first genocide of the 20th century, a term that Turkey rejects.
Ironically, the pieces for which Dink was convicted had urged diaspora Armenians to let go of their anger against the Turks. The prosecution was sharply criticized by the European Union, which Turkey has sought to join. Dink said he would take the case to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, France, to clear his name.
Dink edited Agos for the first 11 years of the paper’s existence. The only Armenian newspaper in Turkey, Agos had a circulation of just 6,000 at the time of Dink’s death, but its political influence was vast. Dink regularly appeared on television to express his views.
In a February 2006 interview with CPJ, Dink said that he hoped his critical reporting would pave the way for peace between the two peoples. "I want to write and ask how we can change this historical conflict into peace," he said.
In the interview, Dink said he did not think the tide had yet turned in favor of critical writers–"the situation in Turkey is tense"–but he believed that it ultimately would. "I believe in democracy and press freedom. I am determined to pursue the struggle."
Dink’s murder trial started in July 2007 in Istanbul, reports said. Two years into the trial, the journalist’s family’s lawyers said in a statement that government forces knew that Dink’s life was under imminent threat and that intelligence officers had been informed of specific details concerning a plan to murder him, yet, “no precautions were taken. On the contrary, some public officers tried to cover up evidence and hid information about the gravity of the situation from each other.”
The European Court of Human Rights, based in Strasbourg, ruled in 2010 that Turkey failed to protect Dink’s life and freedom of expression, as CPJ reported at the time.
On July 25, 2011, Samast was sentenced to 22 years and 10 months in prison for the murder, a decision that was upheld by the Supreme Court in 2012, according to reports. The verdict was not found satisfactory by trial observers, many of whom protested for allegations of official negligence or state collusion to be investigated, according to the BBC.
The Supreme Court of Appeals agreed that the Dink case should be further investigated and, in May 2013 ordered a retrial, as CPJ reported at the time. Dink family lawyer Fethiye Çetin told CPJ at the time that the investigation should be expanded to include possible official corruption.
In a criminal conspiracy trial on July 17, 2019, which was separated from the main murder trial for statutory reasons, Samast, Hayal, and Tuncel, along with six other defendants, had additional years in prison added to their sentences, reports said. Samast had two and a half years added to his 22-year sentence, Hayal was sentenced to a total of seven and a half years, and Tuncel sentenced to 99 years, according to those reports.
On July 30, the Dink family’s lawyers appealed the verdict on the grounds that they wanted the defendants to be charged as members of an armed terrorist organization rather than as members of a criminal organization, reports said.
Hakan Bakırcıoğlu, a lawyer for the Dink family, told the Turkish service of German broadcaster Deutsche Welle that the court still refuses to question certain government personnel about their role in the murder, according to a report published on January 18, 2020. “Therefore, the trial that continues today is an incomplete one. The verdict to come out as it is would not solve the Dink murder from every aspect,” he said.
The trial was ongoing as of August 2020, with the next session set for September 16, 2020, according to Agos.