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How CPJ investigates and classifies attacks on the press

JANUARY 22, 2004

Ali Bashi Mohammed Haji, Radio Banadir
Mohammed Sadak Abdi Guunbe, Radio Shabelle

Haji, a reporter with Radio Banadir, and Guunbe, a reporter with Radio Shabelle, were arrested at their hotel in the Puntland city of Garowe around midnight on the night of January 21 to 22 and held for about eight hours, according to local press freedom groups. Local sources believe that the journalists were suspected of sending sensitive political reports to their radio stations in Mogadishu, including coverage of a border dispute between the self-declared autonomous region of Puntland and the self-declared republic of Somaliland.

Haji is based in Mogadishu, while Guunbe is normally based in the Puntland city of Galkayo. The two were on their way to the Puntland commercial city of Bossasso. After their release, the men were allowed to proceed to Bossasso, according to the Somali Journalists Network (SOJON). SOJON quoted Radio Banadir's deputy director as saying that the Puntland authorities later apologized for the incident. However, SOJON expressed concern about the current situation of journalists in Puntland, where it said they were frequently threatened, arrested and censored.

Somalia has had no central government since the collapse of the Siad Barre regime in 1991. Some authority, however, has emerged in Mogadishu, in Puntland (northeast), and Somaliland (northwest). Ongoing peace talks in Kenya, boycotted by Somaliland, have increased rivalry between the various factions in Somalia. Tension between Puntland and Somaliland has recently escalated over the disputed border regions of Sool and Sanaag.

FEBRUARY 24, 2004

Posted: March 2, 2004

Abshir Ali Gabre, Radio Jawhar

Ali Gabre, news editor at the independent Radio Jawhar, was held overnight on the orders of Somali faction leader Mohamed Omar Habeeb, also known as Mohamed Dere. Dere is chairman of the self-appointed Jawhar administration.

Gabre was arrested at the radio station at about 8 p.m. and detained for around 14 hours in connection with a report that he had just broadcast, according to local journalistsí organizations. During the report, the journalist pointed out that Dere and his allies had signed a January 29 peace agreement in Kenya, even though he had recently stated that he did not support the accord.

Somalia has had no central government since the collapse of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 and is divided between rival faction leaders. Peace talks between the main faction leaders and the weak, Mogadishu-based Transitional National Government have been ongoing for more than a year in Kenya. In January, all the main faction leaders signed an agreement to create a new national parliament that will in turn elect a president.

Gabre was taken to a police cell and detained overnight. The police station commander told Gabre that Dere had ordered his arrest, according to the Somali Journalists Network (SOJON). Gabre was questioned repeatedly about why he had read the offending report.

Following a recent visit to Jawhar, which is about 56 miles (90 kilometers) north of the capital, Mogadishu, SOJON said that journalists there were "censored daily" by Mohamed Dere, with the militia regularly going to Radio Jawhar, the only station in the region.

FEBRUARY 24, 2004
Posted: March 15, 2004

Mohamed Hussein Joma ("Rambo"), Jamhuuriya
Mohamed Abdi Urad, Jamhuuriya

Police arrested Rambo and Urad, both journalists for independent daily Jamhuuriya, at the Somaliland Supreme Court in the capital, Hargeisa, while they were covering the trial of prominent traditional elder Boqor (or king) Usman Mahmud, who was accused of destabilizing Somaliland. The two journalists were taken to the police station and held for four hours before being released without charge, according to local journalists' organizations.

The two reporters were arrested while taking photographs at Boqor's trial, according to local journalists. They said the courtroom was tense, with a number of Boqor's supporters attending and a heavy police presence. The elder was arrested on January 27 and accused of undermining the state by having contacts with the neighboring self-declared autonomous region of Puntland, according to the U.N. Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN). Somaliland declared independence from the rest of Somalia in 1991 but has not been internationally recognized. Tension has been high between Somaliland and Puntland over the Sool and Sanaag regions, which are claimed by both.

Rambo and Urad were arrested after taking photos of the police and of the courtroom crowd. Police subsequently apologized for the journalists' detention, saying it was a mistake.

APRIL 21, 2004
Updated: July 2, 2004

Abdishakur Yusuf Ali, War-Ogaal

Abdishakur, editor of the independent weekly War-Ogaal, was arrested April 21, 2004, and imprisoned for more than a month in the self-declared autonomous region of Puntland in Somalia. The arrest came after War-Ogaal published an article accusing Puntland Finance Minister Abdirahman Mohamud Farole of corruption in connection with a food assistance program, local journalists said.

Abdishakur was freed June 1 after being brought before a Bossasso court, according to the Somali journalists' group SOJON. The court sentenced Abdishakur to six months in prison for "publishing false information" but SOJON and a local human rights group opened talks with the Puntland administration and the court, which agreed to reduce the sentence to a Somali shilling fine equivalent to $140. Abdishakur was released after the fine was paid, SOJON said.

While in prison, local journalists said, Abdishakur resisted pressure to sign a statement admitting to publishing false information. Puntland Information Minister Abdikarim Ali Mahdi told CPJ that the finance minister wanted an apology, but denied that Abdishakur had been pressured.

APRIL 26, 2004
Posted: May 3, 2004

Abdirahman Haji Dahir, Haatuf

Dahir, a reporter for independent Somaliland daily Haatuf, was arrested at around 8 a.m. local time in the port city of Berbera because of an article alleging differences between Somaliland President Dahir Riyale Kahin and his vice president, said local journalists. He was held in custody at Berbera central police station, where he was questioned about the offending article. Dahir was brought before the Berbera regional court on the morning of April 28, and charged with publishing false information alleging differences between President Kahin and Vice President Ahmed Yusuf Yassin over whether or not to fire certain government officials. He was given a six-month suspended prison sentence and released around noon the same day.

The April 25 edition of Haatuf, which carried the article, was submitted as evidence in Dahirís brief trial. He did not have access to legal counseling during the trial, according to CPJ sources.

MAY 6, 2004
Posted: May 12, 2004

Abshir Ali Gabre, Radio Jawhar
Abdulgani Sheikh Mohamed, Radio Jawhar

Abshir Ali, editor-in-chief at the independent station Radio Jawhar, and Abdulgani Sheikh, news editor at the station, were arrested and detained for 48 hours on the orders of faction leader Mohamed Dhere, according to local press freedom groups. Dhere is chairman of the self-appointed administration in Jawhar, about 56 miles (90 kilometers) north of Somalia's capital, Mogadishu.
Armed men arrested the two journalists after Radio Jawhar reported that the regional body the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development, which is sponsoring negotiations to end more than 10 years of civil conflict in Somalia, was urging reticent leaders, including Dhere, to return to the peace talks in Nairobi, Kenya. Radio Jawhar went off the air to protest the arrest of its journalists.

"We were told we would be charged, but were then released without charge on Saturday morning [May 8, 2004]," Abshir Ali told the U.N. news agency IRIN. "This was pure intimidation of the independent press."

This is the second time that Abshir Ali has been detained in recent months. On February 24, 2004, he was detained overnight, also on Dhere's orders, because of a report on the peace process that displeased the local administration, according to local journalists' organizations.

JUNE 15, 2004
Posted: June 29, 2004

Abdirahman Ali Subiye, Holy Quran Radio
Hassan Haji Hanafi, Holy Quran Radio
Fardowso Mohammed Abdulle, Radio HornAfrik

Subiye and Hanafi, reporters for the private Holy Quran Radio, and Abdulle, a reporter for the private Radio HornAfrik, went to a northern district of the capital, Mogadishu, to cover the mediation of a conflict between rival militias headed by warlord Muse Sudi Yalahow and businessman Bashir Ragge Shirar.

The journalists were reporting on both the mediation talks and the reactions of local residents who had been affected by fighting between the two factions. When militiamen loyal to Yalahow spotted Subiye taking pictures of them at Yalahow's headquarters, where the talks were being held, they detained him. According to Abdulle, Yalahow confiscated Subiye's camera and had it run over by a car. Abdulle said that Yalahow accused Subiye of being a spy for Shirar.

Yalahow's men then beat Subiye with the backs of their guns. When Abdulle and Hanafi tried to intervene on Subiye's behalf, the militiamen threatened to beat them as well. The journalists informed the district elders who were serving as mediators between the two factions about the attack, and the elders eventually intervened to stop it.

Subiye sustained minor injuries. Sources in Mogadishu said that Subiye changed his residence out of fear of further harassment by Yalahow's militia.

JULY 6, 2004

Posted: July 7, 2004

Jamaal Salah Adam, Radio Galkayo


Adam, a reporter for Radio Galkayo, was arrested in Galkayo as he interviewed protesters demonstrating against a local government construction plan, according to Somali press freedom groups.

Galkayo Mayor Hussein Jama Yabaq came to the scene, intervening as Adam interviewed anti-government protesters and slapping the journalist, Radio Galkayo told the press freedom group SOJON. Adam was arrested by the mayor's security guards, who also beat him, SOJON reported.

Adam was detained for around nine hours. He was released in the evening, after local journalists and press freedom groups exerted pressure on the Galkayo authorities, SOJON said.

AUGUST 31, 2004

Updated: October 7, 2004

Hassan Said Yusuf, Jamhuuriya and The Republican

Police arrested Yusuf, editor-in-chief of the independent Somali-language daily Jamhuuriya and its weekly English-language edition, The Republican, in the self-declared republic of Somaliland.

Yusuf was arrested at his office in Somaliland's capital, Hargeisa, by police officers armed with a warrant, according to local press freedom organizations. His arrest stemmed from a news article published in Jamhuuriya on August 30 about the Somaliland government's stance on peace talks in Kenya between neighboring Somalia's Transitional National Government and warring Somali factions. Somaliland has refused invitations to participate in the talks.

The article suggested that Somaliland's main opposition party, Kulmiye, took a harder stance against participating in the peace talks than Somaliland's government, according to local sources. Yusuf's arrest was condemned by local press freedom organizations, including the Somali Journalists Network (SOJON) and the Press Freedom Violation Monitors.

Yusuf was charged with publishing false information and released on bail on September 5, according to SOJON. His trial began on September 9, and on October 4, the court acquitted him of all charges, saying the prosecution had failed to prove its case.

Yusuf and other journalists working for Jamhuuriya have been targeted by Somaliland authorities before. In October 2003, police detained Yusuf for nine hours in Hargeisa, and accused him of publishing information that was "not good for the government." In February 2004, police arrested two reporters working for Jamhuuriya at the Somaliland Supreme Court while they were covering the trial of a prominent traditional elder accused of destabilizing Somaliland. The two journalists were held for four hours before being released without charge, according to local journalists' organizations.

SEPTEMBER 26, 2004
Updated: February 7, 2004

Abdiqani Sheik Mohamed, Radio Jawhar and Radio Banadir

Abdiqani Sheik was detained and beaten by militiamen loyal to faction leader Mohamed Dhere on the main road of Jawhar, a town north of the capital, Mogadishu. The attack came after the private, Mogadishu-based Radio Banadir broadcast a report by Abdiqani Sheik on a dispute over the management of Jawhar mosque, according to local press freedom group SOJON. Dhere is chairman of the self-appointed administration in the Middle Shabelle region, which is north of Mogadishu. Abdiqani Sheik is a journalist with the private station Radio Jawhar and a local correspondent for Radio Banadir, according to SOJON.

On September 27, Dhere's spokesman Hassan Ali Mohamud issued a decree stating that Abdiqani Sheik was banned from practicing journalism. The journalist subsequently fled to Mogadishu.

On November 20, following protests by local and international press freedom groups, Jawhar authorities offered to lift the ban if Abdiqani Sheik admitted spreading "false" information and asked for amnesty, according to SOJON. Abdiqani Sheik refused. Local sources said the journalist had returned to Jawhar to be with his family but was not working.

On February 3, 2005, Jawhar authorities authorized Abdiqani Sheik to return to work for Radio Banadir and Radio Jawhar. The authorization came from the administration's chief security officer, Ahmed Omar Habeeb "Jaandhay," who is Dhere's brother, according to SOJON. This came a day after the arrival of 30 parliamentarians in Mogadishu to review security conditions for the arrival of a transitional federal government and parliament elected by a Somali peace conference in Kenya.